Mao Zedong's decision to take on the U.
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President Eisenhower was the first to refer to countries in danger of Communist takeover as dominoes, in response to a journalist's question about Indochina in an April 7, , news conference, though he did not use the term "domino theory". This would give them a geographical and economic strategic advantage, and it would make Japan, Taiwan , the Philippines , Australia, and New Zealand the front-line defensive states. The loss of regions traditionally within the vital regional trading area of countries like Japan would encourage the front-line countries to compromise politically with communism.
Eisenhower's domino theory of was a specific description of the situation and conditions within Southeast Asia at the time, and he did not suggest a generalized domino theory as others did afterward.
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The John F. Kennedy administration intervened in Vietnam in the early s to, among other reasons, keep the South Vietnamese "domino" from falling. When Kennedy came to power there was concern that the communist-led Pathet Lao in Laos would provide the Viet Cong with bases, and that eventually they could take over Laos. The primary evidence for the domino theory is the spread of communist rule in three Southeast Asian countries in , following the communist takeover of Vietnam : South Vietnam by the Viet Cong , Laos by the Pathet Lao , and Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge.
It can further be argued that before they finished taking Vietnam prior to the s, the communist campaigns did not succeed in Southeast Asia. Note the Malayan Emergency , the Hukbalahap Rebellion in the Philippines , and the increasing involvement with Communists by Sukarno of Indonesia from the late s until he was deposed in All of these were unsuccessful Communist attempts to take over Southeast Asian countries which stalled when communist forces were still focused in Vietnam.
Congress not to want to export jobs. But we have to have the jobs if we are to stop Communism. We have done that, moving from simple to more complex skilled labor. If we stop this process, it will do more harm than you can every[sic] repair with aid. Don't cut off imports from Southeast Asia. McGeorge Bundy argued that the prospects for a domino effect, though high in the s and early s, were weakened in when the Indonesian Communist Party was destroyed via CIA-supported death squads in the Indonesian genocide.
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However, proponents believe that the efforts during the containment i. Some supporters of the domino theory note the history of communist governments supplying aid to communist revolutionaries in neighboring countries. For instance, China supplied the Viet Minh , the North Vietnamese army, with troops and supplies, and the Soviet Union supplied them with tanks and heavy weapons. The fact that the Pathet Lao and Khmer Rouge were both originally part of the Vietminh, not to mention Hanoi's support for both in conjunction with the Viet Cong, also give credence to the theory.
The Soviet Union also heavily supplied Sukarno with military supplies and advisors from the time of the Guided Democracy in Indonesia , especially during and after the civil war in Sumatra. Linguist and political theorist Noam Chomsky wrote that he believes that the domino theory is roughly accurate, although he put a more positive spin on the threat, writing that communist and socialist movements became popular in poorer countries because they brought economic improvements to those countries in which they took power.
For this reason, he wrote, the U. If a tiny, poor country like Grenada can succeed in bringing about a better life for its people, some other place that has more resources will ask, 'Why not us? Michael Lind has argued that though the domino theory failed regionally, there was a global wave, as communist or Marxist—Leninist regimes came to power in Benin , Ethiopia , Guinea-Bissau , Madagascar , Cape Verde , Mozambique , Angola , Afghanistan , Grenada , and Nicaragua during the s.
The global interpretation of the domino effect relies heavily upon the "prestige" interpretation of the theory, meaning that the success of Communist revolutions in some countries, though it did not provide material support to revolutionary forces in other countries, did contribute morale and rhetorical support. In this vein, Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara wrote an essay, the "Message to the Tricontinental", in , calling for "two, three The Soviet Army invaded Afghanistan.
There is no obvious connection with the Vietnam War, but there is little doubt that the defeat of a superpower encouraged our enemies to undertake acts of aggression that they might otherwise have shied away from. In addition, this theory can be further bolstered by the rise in terrorist incidents by left-wing terrorist groups in Western Europe, funded in part by Communist governments, between the s and s.
Dozier , by the Red Brigades. In the far east the Japanese Red Army carried out similar acts. All four, as well as others worked with various Arab and Palestinian terrorists, which like the red brigades were backed by the Soviet Bloc. Borrowing a metaphor he had heard, he stated that a Communist Chile and Cuba would create a "red sandwich" that could entrap Latin America between them.
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In his memoirs, former Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith described the successive rise of authoritarian left-wing governments in Sub-Saharan Africa during decolonization as "the communists' domino tactic". Some foreign policy analysts in the United States have referred to the potential spread of both Islamic theocracy and liberal democracy in the Middle East as two different possibilities for a domino theory.
During the Iran—Iraq War the United States and other western nations supported Ba'athist Iraq , fearing the spread of Iran's radical theocracy throughout the region. In the invasion of Iraq , some neoconservatives argued that when a democratic government is implemented, it would then help spread democracy and liberalism across the Middle East. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Photos Add Image. Learn more More Like This. Case Sensitive — Crime Thriller. Golden Boy Crime Drama.
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Urban Dictionary: Domino Effect
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The International Churchill Society. Margolies A Companion to Harry S. Foreign Affairs. George Kennan: A Study of Character. Yale University Press. Ankara University. History Channel. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved September 23, Northern Virginia Community College.
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