Knowledge is power but without action is useless. Knowledge is like bullets and action is like a gun. This is however easier said than done. It is not easy to take action on everything you read. You have read this post but it is unlikely you will apply the information that you have read so far.
You can also intelligently direct people who possess the knowledge you need, to achieve what you want. When you do acquire knowledge or learn something new, keep in mind that knowledge is power only when you apply it.
Use the system covered in the second half to effectively acquire knowledge and apply it. Finally someone who knows what it takes to go from information to realization and escapes the life cycle of information. Thanks Ofpad!! Sign up to our newsletter. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Knowing Is Not Understanding Imagine you had a bucket. Any fool can know. The point is to understand. The curse of much knowledge is often indecision - Skyrim Click to Tweet.
Once people complete their compulsory education, they may pursue further education in a variety of settings e.
Learning by doing
There are several important differences between K and postsecondary education settings. First, institutions that educate adults have varied goals. Many academic institutions use prior academic performance and ability to select those they think will succeed and thrive in the academic environment they provide; they do not have responsibility for the success of people whom they do not accept or who do not succeed in their environments.
Although there are exceptions, such as adult literacy and retraining programs, for most academic institutions and organizations that are training employees the focus is on recognizing and rewarding talent, rather than raising the performance of those who are struggling. In work environments, the outcomes for people who are not able to learn new skills can be even harsher; workers who cannot or will not learn a required skill can expect to be told to look for other employment.
These two examples illustrate how vital it is that K experiences prepare students for the developmental demands of college and beyond. There are also marked differences between the classroom experiences characteristic of K and postsecondary education and those common in training and development in the workplace. In postsecondary situations, students may be expected to complete more of the work outside of the classroom than they had in high school, but they are free to decide how they will prioritize their study time and get work done.
In work situations, supervisors will rarely assess whether the employee has learned the necessary skills to execute a task; rather, workers are expected to figure it out on their own and ask questions if they have them. This increased autonomy highlights the importance of interest, motivation, and the capacity to monitor and regulate their own progress. Researchers have not directly assessed the relative importance of interest and motivation among K and postsecondary students.
However, there is some empirical evidence that these factors are important for success in postsecondary environments, along with cognitive ability and psychosocial contextual influences such as cultural background e.
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Most of this research uses grade-point average as a proxy for learning, though many factors may affect it. This research suggests that cognitive ability typically measured through standardized tests and high school performance tend to account for the most variance in college grade point average, but motivational factors such as academic self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and goal orientation also have been positively associated with academic performance Ackerman et al. They have found that the social climate at many colleges and universities does not serve minority and first-generation students well Stephens et al.
These students often encounter challenges that other students do not face. First-generation students, for instance, tend to come from families. They therefore have less time to invest in further opportunities for learning and development, such as unpaid internships Pascarella et al. These challenges are also cultural in that many American universities support middle-class norms of independence e. Studies of the possible effects of a cultural mismatch for first-generation students suggest that positioning the university culture as independent rendered tasks more difficult for first-generation students, but that representing the culture as interdependent facilitated their performance Stephens et al.
This is but one example, and although research continues to examine elements of postsecondary educational environments that facilitate or impede student performance, more work in this area is urgently needed. Box describes an approach to addressing this problem. Formal training accounts for a relatively small percentage of workplace learning, but it is still important for many learners Tannenbaum et al. Developing an effective training program requires attention to the needs of the organization and its employees, as well as the constraints in which the organization operates Goldstein and Ford, Some research has examined training performance as people age.
Age is generally negatively related to performance in training, in that older learners typically take longer in training and do not perform as well as younger learners after training Kubeck et al. Nonetheless, research does indicate that older adults can learn in training environments if that environment is designed to meet the individual needs of learners Callahan et al. The bottom line is that tailoring instruction to the different motivations and abilities of individual learners is important for workplace training for people of all ages, and the same training intervention will not be equally effective for everyone Cronbach, ; Snow, The age-related differences in performance that should be considered in planning training for older adults likely relate to the changes in reasoning and motivation discussed above.
Although very little research has examined tailored instruction with working-age adults, the available evidence suggests that older learners may benefit from more structure i. Nonetheless, research in this area is sparse, and much work remains to be done to identify. For instance, an employee using an online training tutorial can modify the structure of the program to meet her needs by changing the interface to provide step-by-step instructions when the content to be learned is unfamiliar and perhaps change it back to provide less instruction when the knowledge domain is more familiar.
Technology to support tailored instruction has great promise for workplace training and is a topic that merits further research Gully and Chen, ; Wolfson et al. Second, an evaluation, typically a knowledge test, can be conducted directly after the training has concluded to measure the knowledge acquired by each trainee.
Third, the extent to which the trainee has transferred what was learned in training back to the workplace can be assessed, usually by examining workplace behaviors after training has concluded. The fourth indicator, which can also be measured, is the extent to which the organization benefits over time from the investment in training. Although calculating return on investment can be a complicated process because of the number of different variables other than training ranging from market trends to myriad organizational initiatives that can affect organizational success, it is an important outcome for organizations.
These four indicators may not provide very complete answers about the effectiveness of training. The third level of assessment, measuring what the employee transfers to the job, arguably comes closest to assessing learning. But this type of assessment is more challenging than assessing attitudes and knowledge directly after training, so it is used less frequently.
These challenges are similar. The transfer of training, or applying what has been learned in the workplace, is the third level of evaluation discussed above. It has also been widely studied by cognitive psychologists, who have developed a taxonomy that distinguishes between near transfer and far transfer Barnett and Ceci, Near transfer is using a skill learned in training at another time, outside of the training environment. Transfer of skill learning has been studied in other contexts, and findings from that research apply in organizational training contexts.
For instance, knowledge learned in training will be more likely to transfer if the training and transfer environments are similar and if the training introduces desirable difficulties those that pose a manageable level of challenge to a learner but require learners to engage at a high cognitive level Schmidt and Bjork, However, features of the organizational environment, such as how supportive managers and coworkers are when an employee uses a newly learned skill, influence transfer of workplace training back to the job Blume et al.
A meta-analysis of research on workforce training transfer identified characteristics of learners, such as differences in ability or personality e. The authors point to three elements in the work environment that are important:.
They found that environmental support has the largest effect on transfer; organizational constraints also had a modest effect. They found modest evidence that supervisor support in using the new skill may be more important than peer support. A few examples illustrate how situational cues and opportunities affect training transfer Blume et al.
Knowledge Is Power But Knowledge Without Action Is Useless
If an employee attends training in the use of a database management software pro-. On the other hand, signals in the environment situational cues from coworkers or managers can support the employee in using his new skills. These signals may be perceived by the trainee as consequences: if the employee feels that his attempts to use the new skills or tools learned in training are met with negative consequences, he will be less likely to practice the newly learned skill Blume et al.
For example, a new database management software designed to streamline a process that had previously involved multiple spreadsheets may feel difficult, inefficient, and error-prone when the newly trained employee first uses it. Indeed, if the difficulty of implementing this new skill is not acknowledged by supervisors and coworkers and the use of the new program similarly encouraged, the employee may revert to the old approach to meet a deadline.
This would be an unfortunate waste of organizational resources.
CHAPTER 1: THE MEANING OF LIFE
Furthermore, research on skill learning suggests that difficulty using newly trained skills—at least initially—should be expected, but after extensive practice people can be expected to execute complex tasks with expertise Ackerman, ; Anderson, Because workplace learning is diverse, professionals may engage in learning that is incidental and informal i. Self-directed, or autonomous, learning at work is the most commonly reported approach for workforce development, but informal methods, such as on-the-job training and peer learning, are largely unstudied Ellingson and Noe, One reason is that learning and development are ubiquitous throughout the career span: people often do not realize that the activities in which they are engaging are developmental.
Such experiences might include learning from failure, mastering new tools to be more efficient at work, or taking on challenging job roles required by a new project. Because learners tend not to view such activities and events as learning experiences, systematic evaluation of this learning is difficult Boud and Middleton, The prevalence of autonomous workplace learning reflects the ways many kinds of careers have changed in industrialized countries over the past 50 years or so.